Results of Collaborative Improvement: Effects on Health Outcomes and Compliance with Evidence-based Standards in 27 Applications in 12 Countries
This paper summarizes 10 years of evidence of the effectiveness of collaborative improvement in improving health outcomes and compliance with health care standards. The collaborative improvement approach was designed by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) in the United States to produce rapid, significant improvements in a targeted area of health care. The paper was commissioned by USAID and analyzes the results achieved by over 1,300 teams of health care providers who participated in 27 improvement collaboratives supported by USAID during 1998-2008. Data analyzed consisted of 135 time-series charts representing pooled data from groups of teams from 12 countries. All together, the data covered 81 distinct measures of compliance with standards and outcomes for maternal, newborn and child health, HIV/AIDS care, family planning, and malaria and tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment.
The study found that improvement collaboratives were able to achieve large increases in compliance with health care standards and in some cases, in health outcomes, across all care areas addressed, regardless of the baseline level of quality. Of the 135 analyzed time-series charts, 88% attained performance levels of at least 80%, and 76% reached at least 90%, even though more than half had baseline levels at 50% or below. The data provide compelling evidence that collaborative improvement can achieve large increases in performance, regardless of baseline level, and that results can be achieved relatively rapidly. Across collaboratives, time series charts showed average increases of 52%. Teams reached performance levels of 80% in about 13 months on average when baselines levels were below 50% and in about 6 months when baselines were above 50%. The analysis also suggests that moving beyond 80% performance requires different efforts (system redesign) to make high quality the routine and that deliberate spread reduces time required to raise performance of new sites.